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Ох уж этот английский

Homophones

Что такое Homophone?

Слова, которые звучат одинаково, но значение и написание у них разное, называют омофонами.

Русскому человеку трудно представить себе как могут одинаково звучащие слова на письме отличаться? И не удивительно, ведь звук у одной буквы, как правило, тоже один. В английском же языке такое явление является нормой.

Например: "aye", "eye" and "I". В транскрипции выглядят как [ai], при этом "aye" – , aye, aye! (мор.) Есть!
"eye" – (сущ.), "глаз"
"I" – (личн.мест.), я"

Обратное явление – синонимии – встречается во всех языках, однако только английский язык отличается несоответствием произношения и написания.

Особенно богат омофонами британский английский, и основная сложность состоит в том, чтобы правильно определить на слух, какое слово было употреблено в том или другом предложении.

В то же время, англичане не чувствуют дискомфорта из-за наличия в речи таких несоответствий. Наоборот, за последние десятилетия, в связи с ускорившимся технологическим прогрессом, количество новых слов, заимствованных или приобретенных варваризмов, подобных омофонов стало только больше. Поэтому тема об употреблении и правильном написании английских омофонов для неанглоязычных людей только усложнилась.

Конечно же, знание написания слова (spelling) может помочь по смыслу догадаться, что именно было сказано, также полезно «консультироваться» у словаря, используя фонетические структуры слов.

Чтобы точно выделить, что такое омофоны, рассмотрим все возможные варианты несоответствий, их комбинации и характеристики:

Spelling Pronunciation Meaning Classification Example
Same Different Different Homonym accept – принять, refuse – отказывать
Different Same Different Homophone accept – принять, except – за исключением
Same Same Different Multiple meanings trap – ловушка
Different Different Same Synonym rare/uncommon –редкий / нераспростаненный
Same Different Same Alternative pronuncation neither / 'naIðə , 'ni:ðə /
Different Same Same Alternative spelling jail/gaol

Список самых распространенных Homophones

accessary, accessory
ad, add
ail, ale
air, heir
aisle, I'll, isle
all, awl
allowed, aloud
alms, arms
altar, alter
arc, ark
aren't, aunt
ate, eight
auger, augur
auk, orc
aural, oral
away, aweigh
awe, oar, or, ore
axel, axle
aye, eye, I
bail, bale
bait, bate
baize, bays
bald, bawled
ball, bawl
band, banned
bard, barred
bare, bear
bark, barque
baron, barren
base, bass
bay, bey
bazaar, bizarre
be, bee
beach, beech
bean, been
beat, beet
beau, bow
beer, bier
bel, bell, belle
berry, bury
berth, birth
bight, bite, byte
billed, build
bitten, bittern
blew, blue
bloc, block
boar, bore
board, bored
boarder, border
bold, bowled
boos, booze
born, borne
bough, bow
boy, buoy
brae, bray
braid, brayed
braise, brays, braze
brake, break
bread, bred
brews, bruise
bridal, bridle
broach, brooch
bur, burr
but, butt
buy, by, bye
buyer, byre
calendar, calender
call, caul
canvas, canvass
cast, caste
caster, castor
caught, court
caw, core, corps
cede, seed
ceiling, sealing
cell, sell
censer, censor, sensor
cent, scent, sent
cereal, serial
cheap, cheep
check, cheque
choir, quire
chord, cord
cite, sight, site
clack, claque
clew, clue
climb, clime
close, cloze
coal, kohl
coarse, course
coign, coin
colonel, kernel
complacent, complaisant
complement, compliment
coo, coup
cops, copse
council, counsel
cousin, cozen
creak, creek
crews, cruise
cue, kyu, queue
curb, kerb
currant, current
cymbol, symbol
dam, damn
days, daze
dear, deer
descent, dissent
desert, dessert
deviser, divisor
dew, due
die, dye
discreet, discrete
doe, doh, dough
done, dun
douse, dowse
draft, draught
dual, duel
earn, urn
eery, eyrie
ewe, yew, you
faint, feint
fah, far
fair, fare
farther, father
fate, fete
faun, fawn
fay, fey
faze, phase
feat, feet
ferrule, ferule
few, phew
fie, phi
file, phial
find, fined
fir, fur
fizz, phiz
flair, flare
flaw, floor
flea, flee
flex, flecks
flew, flu, flue
floe, flow
flour, flower
foaled, fold
for, fore, four
foreword, forward
fort, fought
forth, fourth
foul, fowl
franc, frank
freeze, frieze
friar, fryer
furs, furze
gait, gate
galipot, gallipot
gallop, galop
gamble, gambol
gays, gaze
genes, jeans
gild, guild
gilt, guilt
giro, gyro
gnaw, nor
gneiss, nice
gorilla, guerilla
grate, great
greave, grieve
greys, graze
grisly, grizzly
groan, grown
guessed, guest
hail, hale
hair, hare
hall, haul
hangar, hanger
hart, heart
haw, hoar, whore
hay, hey
heal, heel, he'll
hear, here
heard, herd
he'd, heed
heroin, heroine
hew, hue
hi, high
higher, hire
him, hymn
ho, hoe
hoard, horde
hoarse, horse
holey, holy, wholly
hour, our
idle, idol
in, inn
indict, indite
it's, its
jewel, joule
key, quay
knave, nave
knead, need
knew, new
knight, night
knit, nit
knob, nob
knock, nock
knot, not
know, no
knows, nose
laager, lager
lac, lack
lade, laid
lain, lane
lam, lamb
laps, lapse
larva, lava
lase, laze
law, lore
lay, ley
lea, lee
leach, leech
lead, led
leak, leek
lean, lien
lessen, lesson
levee, levy
liar, lyre
licence, license
licker, liquor
lie, lye
lieu, loo
links, lynx
lo, low
load, lode
loan, lone
locks, lox
loop, loupe
loot, lute
made, maid
mail, male
main, mane
maize, maze
mall, maul
manna, manner
mantel, mantle
mare, mayor
mark, marque
marshal, martial
marten, martin
mask, masque
maw, more
me, mi
mean, mien
meat, meet, mete
medal, meddle
metal, mettle
meter, metre
might, mite
miner, minor, mynah
mind, mined
missed, mist
moat, mote
mode, mowed
moor, more
moose, mousse
morning, mourning
muscle, mussel
naval, navel
nay, neigh
nigh, nye
none, nun
od, odd
ode, owed
oh, owe
one, won
packed, pact
packs, pax
pail, pale
pain, pane
pair, pare, pear
palate, palette, pallet
pascal, paschal
paten, patten, pattern
pause, paws, pores, pours
pawn, porn
pea, pee
peace, piece
peak, peek, peke, pique
peal, peel
pearl, purl
pedal, peddle
peer, pier
pi, pie
pica, pika
place, plaice
plain, plane
pleas, please
plum, plumb
pole, poll
poof, pouffe
practice, practise
praise, prays, preys
principal, principle
profit, prophet
quarts, quartz
quean, queen
rain, reign, rein
raise, rays, raze
rap, wrap
raw, roar
read, reed
read, red
real, reel
reek, wreak
rest, wrest
retch, wretch
review, revue
rheum, room
right, rite, wright, write
ring, wring
road, rode
roe, row
role, roll
roo, roux, rue
rood, rude
root, route
rose, rows
rota, rotor
rote, wrote
rough, ruff
rouse, rows
rung, wrung
rye, wry
saver, savour
spade, spayed
sale, sail
sane, seine
satire, satyr
sauce, source
saw, soar, sore
scene, seen
scull, skull
sea, see
seam, seem
sear, seer, sere
seas, sees, seize
sew, so, sow
shake, sheikh
shear, sheer
shoe, shoo
sic, sick
side, sighed
sign, sine
sink, synch
slay, sleigh
sloe, slow
sole, soul
some, sum
son, sun
sort, sought
spa, spar
staid, stayed
stair, stare
stake, steak
stalk, stork
stationary, stationery
steal, steel
stile, style
storey, story
straight, strait
sweet, suite
swat, swot
tacks, tax
tale, tail
talk, torque
tare, tear
taught, taut, tort
te, tea, tee
team, teem
tear, tier
teas, tease
terce, terse
tern, turn
there, their, they're
threw, through
throes, throws
throne, thrown
thyme, time
tic, tick
tide, tied
tire, tyre
to, too, two
toad, toed, towed
told, tolled
tole, toll
ton, tun
tor, tore
tough, tuff
troop, troupe
tuba, tuber
vain, vane, vein
vale, veil
vial, vile
wail, wale, whale
wain, wane
waist, waste
wait, weight
waive, wave
wall, waul
war, wore
ware, wear, where
warn, worn
wart, wort
watt, what
wax, whacks
way, weigh, whey
we, wee, whee
weak, week
we'd, weed
weal, we'll, wheel
wean, ween
weather, whether
weaver, weever
weir, we're
were, whirr
wet, whet
wheald, wheeled
which, witch
whig, wig
while, wile
whine, wine
whirl, whorl
whirled, world
whit, wit
white, wight who's, whose
woe, whoa
wood, would
yaw, yore, your, you're
yoke, yolk
you'll, yule

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май, 2010

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