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Relief of the UK

The British Islands appeared due to changes in environmental pressure, atmosphere, biosphere and underwater currents.

The Ice Age initiated these changes. Before this time, a mainland existed, a fact accepted by the scientific community. The remains of elephants have been found there; and, the eastern part of the country is full of chalk cliffs, which are similar to those along coastal France.

England is a true geological museum. The relief is represented by Highlands, Lowlands, deep valleys, and plains.

The highest parts are in Scotland, North Wales, as well as the North and central regions of England.

The Grampian Mountains stretch across Scotland from North to South. The highest peak is Ben Nevis, seemingly gloomy, isolated, and the home of deer and eagle populations.

At the foot of the mountains, there are a lot of moors rich in peat and heather.

The geographical border between Scotland and England are the Cheviot Hills, the only place where you can find the unique species of black-faced sheep. Their wool is of the highest quality and is called "the cheviot".

The Pennines stretch across England from North to South,and they are rich in minerals (such as coal and copper, leads, salt, clay, and tin)

The Cambrian Mountains are in Wales with the highest peak called Snowdon, a place of holiday camps and health resorts.

The Chalk Cliffs are on the East Coast of Britain.

When Julius Caesar and his warriors first approached the shore, they saw the chalk-white cliffs, hence deriving the name White Land, from the Chalk Cliffs.

The Lowlands are in the central and southern parts of Scotland. The South of England ,Kent, is called the Garden of England. It contains low hills, valleys and plains.

The river system of the British Isles is different from others, as follows:

  1. Some rivers don't freeze in winter and, this situation is favourable for fish.
  2. Most British rivers flow in an easterly direction, because of the mountains.
  3. British rivers are navigable and are used as principal waterways. This means that a harbour or port can be found in the mouth of the river.
  4. Aside from rivers, Scotland and the northwestern region of England are famous for their lakes. This area is referred to as the Lake District.

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